Factors Affecting a Thai Student’s Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

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Kanchana Boobphan, BoonchanSisan, PariyapornTungkunanan


In Thailand, higher-order thinking skills (HOTs) have become an essential element in early student education. However, the most recent assessment results from older student PISA results show a continuing downturn in Thai student problem-solving and analytical thinking skills abilities. Therefore, this study set out to investigate which factors play a role in increasing Thai student HOTS by use of a mixed research methodto combine elements of both qualitative and quantitative research approaches. From the qualitative review of the literature and theory and a determination of which elements were established to contribute to student HOTS, the study made use of quantitative analysis from the input from 14 educational experts. After the identification of the ongoing problem with low Thai student PISA scores and the assessment’s connection to HOTS, the authors set out to identify, synthesize, evaluate and analyze which factors played a role in Thai learner HOTS. From the qualitative analysis, eight elements were identified including classroom atmosphere, achievement motivation, the internal locus of control (ILCO), parenting, achievement, reasoning ability, attitude towards learning, and finally, scientific personality. Of the eight elements, the classroom’s atmosphere was judged to be the most important. This was followed closely by a student's ILOC and parenting. Furthermore, from the input of the 14 educational experts, four main categories were identified including classroom atmosphere, achievement motivation, internal locus of control, and parenting. From the analysis of these four categories and their related 16 elements, democratic parenting was judged to be most important for the development of a Thai student's higher-order thinking skills. This was closely followed by rational parenting and loving and supportive parents.


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Kanchana Boobphan, BoonchanSisan, PariyapornTungkunanan. (2021). Factors Affecting a Thai Student’s Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education (TURCOMAT), 12(13), 6606–6613. https://doi.org/10.17762/turcomat.v12i13.10031
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