Distributed energy efficient clustering (DEEC) protocols for enhancing energy efficiency and sensor lifespan in wireless sensor networks (WSNs)

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Gagandeep Kaur

Abstract

Due to high sensing, computing and communication capabilities, the wireless sensor networks
(WSNs) are widely used in different sectors, although with numerous resource constraints such
as energy, processing power, storage and transmission range etc. The present study adopted the
hybrid protocol integrating homogeneous and heterogeneous clustering protocols viz. Distributed
Energy Efficient Clustering-maximum threshold (DEEC-MT) as compared with the basic DEEC,
balanced and centralized DEEC (BC-DEEC) protocols. These three protocols were to enhance
the energy efficiency and network lifetime of WSNs at different number of nodes (100 and 200)
and packet size (3000 and 4000). The implementation of DEEC-MT protocol (number of
nodes=200 and packet size=4000) resulted in increased lifetime of WSN by ~19.8% over the
BC-DEEC protocol. However, the corresponding increase was ~37.6% over basic DEEC
protocol. At 10000 rounds, the numbers of packets sent to the base station (BS) were 9.8 x 105
packets for DEEC-MT, while less than 1.7 x 105 packets for BC-DEEC and 2.3 x 105 packets for
DEEC protocol. The reliability of DEEC-MT protocol was considerably higher by ~24.7 and
13.8% as compared to basic DEEC and BC-DEEC protocols, respectively. The implementation
of DEEC-MT protocol decreased the end-to-end delay by ~23.7%, compared with BC-DEEC
protocol. These results highlight that newly proposed DEEC-MT protocol was more energy
efficient and had prolonged network lifetime.

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