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Taking care of the origins of every science is to preserve it and renew the religious and worldly life of the nation and achieve its interests for its need in its renaissance of all sciences, including taking care of calamities and emerging issues that have an impact on the nation’s nodal, economic, social, political, or educational entity. Or health, as is the case today with the emerging corona disease, and those who go back to the history of Islam find great care in the origins of science, and jurisprudential attention to the calamities that arise in the life of the nation and return them to those assets.
Because the issue that needs legal ijtihad in most cases must have occurred and was one of the new issues, and that is in all issues, then the calamity is characterized by being severe, so that the nation as a whole pays attention to it, and it calls for a legal ijtihad stance, and leaving ijtihad in it is harmful to the Some scholars have defined it as “what necessitates a legal ruling from the emerging facts,” or it is the urgent emerging facts. If it is added to its being severe, i.e. related to matters of importance in the reality of the nation, it is permissible to differentiate between it and the generality of new issues, as not every new issue is emerging. Modern forms of polytheism, some recent educational issues, innovative scientific discoveries, and contemporary linguistic issues, such as naming some modern inventions.
They also considered diligence in calamities as one of the obligations of competencies, carried out by those who find in themselves the strength to do so, especially when they lose those who can consider them. Ijtihad, whether in the general sense or that is divided into some issues is one of the necessities of reviving and renewing the religion, which the nation is indispensable in every age, so the researcher who has the capacity to elicit deduction must gather evidence related to the question in question.
- The correct conception of it, starting with defining the subject of the dispute, the location and nature of the research in it, whether it is jurisprudence, educational, economic or health, and an investigation of previous studies, if any, whether they are in Sharia sciences or other sciences, and updating information about the calamity, Passing through the search for the circumstances of the calamity and its history, and the circumstances surrounding it, and ending with referring to the people who specialize in it and consulting them.
- Adapting the calamity, by returning it to its scientific origin if it is due to an original, or returning it to a group of assets, or what is predominant, or considering it an issue that has a special case And all of this is known either as a text, or a consensus, or graduation on an advanced calamity, or an advanced imam’s fatwa, or a jurisprudential rule and as for the general issues related to other sciences, it is known to be adapted by following research methods in those sciences.