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This study aims at comparing Turkey and Singapore 5th grade mathematics textbooks in terms of learning opportunities offered to students through worked-examples and questions posed (potential cognitive demand, reasoning and proof). The study that adopts document analysis technique reveals that Singapore textbook includes more visual representations and graphical displays, provides more multiple solution methods, uses modeling more effectively while the Turkish textbook includes more real-life related worked-examples. Results show that the questions in Singapore 5th grade textbook entail relatively higher cognitive demand but that most questions in both Turkey and Singapore textbooks are at memorization level. It was also found out that Singapore textbook includes more reasoning and proof questions and there was more variety of reasoning and proof questions. However, there were no questions to encourage evaluating justifications, generic examples, and empirical types of elicited arguments in both books.