Chemical Perspectives on the Impact of Climate Change in Afghanistan: A Comprehensive Review

Main Article Content

Zardar Khan
Noorzaman Bawari
Shukrullah Wadeer
Mohammad Jawad Niazi
Nazar Mohammad Nazar
Safir Ullah Aftab


: Climate change is a global phenomenon that has significant impacts on various aspects of human life, including the environment, economy, and social well-being. Afghanistan, one of the least developed and most vulnerable countries to climate change, is facing alarming effects due to its high dependence on agricultural livelihoods, fragile environment, poor socio-economic development, high frequency of natural hazards, and over four decades of conflict. This comprehensive review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on the impact of climate change on Afghanistan's environment, economy, and society, and to highlight the vulnerability of Afghanistan to climate change. The review also explores the chemical composition of air pollutants in Afghan cities, the impact of air and water pollution on human health and the environment, the influence of climate change on soil composition and nutrient availability, and the implications for water resources, including groundwater quality and availability. Finally, the review discusses the chemical aspects of climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts in Afghanistan, focusing on innovative technologies and practices to address climate-related challenges in the country.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Khan, Z., Bawari, N. ., Wadeer , S. ., Niazi, M. J. ., Nazar, N. M., & Aftab, S. U. (2024). Chemical Perspectives on the Impact of Climate Change in Afghanistan: A Comprehensive Review . Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education (TURCOMAT), 15(2), 104–116.
Research Articles


Afghanistan- Climatology | Climate Change Knowledge Portal (2023).

Afghanistan Air Quality Index (AQI) and Air Pollution information | IQAir. (2024).

Afghanistan Vulnerability and Adaptation Technical Assessment Report | UNEP - UN Environment

Programme. (2023).

Afghanistan: The alarming effects of climate change | OCHA. (2023).

Aich, V.,& Khoshbeen, A. J. (2023). Afghanistan: Climate Change Science Perspectives. Kabul: National

Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) and UN Environment.

Barkdull, N. S., Carling, G. T., Fernandez, D. P., Nelson, S. T., Bickmore, B. R., Tingey, D. G., Checketts,

H. N., Packer, B. N., & Hale, C. A. (2021). Glaciers Control the Hydrogeochemistry of Proglacial Streams

During Late Summer in the Wind River Range, Wyoming, United States. Frontiers in Earth Science,

(October), 1–15.

Brevik, E. C. (2013). The potential impact of climate change on soil properties and processes and

corresponding influence on food security. Agriculture, 3(3), 398–

Castellazzi, P., Burgess, D., Rivera, A., Huang, J., Longuevergne, L., & Demuth, M. N. (2019). Glacial

Melt and Potential Impacts on Water Resources in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Water Resources

Research, 55(12), 10191–10217.

Chapter 4: Water | Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. (n.d.). Retrieved January

, 2024, from

Climate Change Compounds Longstanding Displacement in Afghanistan - Afghanistan | ReliefWeb.


Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Food Supply | US EPA. (2023).

Deacu, D., Fortin, V., Klyszejko, E., Spence, C., &Blanken, P. D. (2012). Predicting the net basin supply

to the Great Lakes with a hydrometeorological model. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 13(6), 1739–1759.

Du, X., Silwal, G., &Faramarzi, M. (2022). Investigating the impacts of glacier melt on stream temperature

in a cold-region watershed: Coupling a glacier melt model with a hydrological model. Journal of

Hydrology, 605, 127303.

Environment, N. & U. (2016). Afghanistan: Climate Change Science Perspectives. 34.

Food & Soil Health | Soil and Environmental Biogeochemistry. (2023).

Gasping for air in Kabul. (2023).

Hamidov, A., Helming, K., Bellocchi, G., Bojar, W., Dalgaard, T., Ghaley, B. B., Hoffmann, C., Holman,

I., Holzkämper, A., &Krzeminska, D. (2018). Impacts of climate change adaptation options on soil

functions: A review of European case‐studies. Land Degradation & Development, 29(8), 2378–2389.

Ηow air pollution affects our health. (2023).

Jawadi, H. A., Sagin, J., & Snow, D. D. (2020). A Detailed Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Kabul

Basin. Water, 1–19.

Jawid, A., &Khadjavi, M. (2019). Adaptation to climate change in Afghanistan: Evidence on the impact

of external interventions. Economic Analysis and Policy, 64, 64–82.

Kassam, K. A., Karamkhudoeva, M., Ruelle, M., &Baumflek, M. (2010). Medicinal Plant Use and Health

Sovereignty: Findings from the Tajik and Afghan Pamirs. Human Ecology, 38(6), 817.

Manisalidis, I., Stavropoulou, E., Stavropoulos, A., &Bezirtzoglou, E. (2020). Environmental and health

impacts of air pollution: a review. Frontiers in Public Health, 8, 14.

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences: Air Pollution and Your Health. (2023).

NazifaFaqeryar, & Yoshihito Mori. (2018). Extraction of Essential Oils from Afghanistan Medicinal Plants

Using Microwave and Conventional Methods. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 6(3), 202–216.

Pa, N. E. (2009). Afghanistan NationalNational Capacity Needs Self-Assessment for Global

Environmental Management (NCSA) and National Adaptation Programme of Action for Climate Change

(NAPA) (Issue February). Documents/Parties/napaafghanistan-final.pdf

Pareek, N. (2017). Climate change impact on soils: adaptation and mitigation. MOJ Ecol. Environ. Sci, 2,


Parikh, S. J., & James, B. R. (2012). Soil: the foundation of agriculture. Nature Education Knowledge,

(10), 2.

Patrick, D. L. (2016). Health and Environmental Effects of Air Pollution. Health & Environmental Effects

of Air Pollution Health, 1–3.

Piao, S., Ciais, P., Huang, Y., Shen, Z., Peng, S., Li, J., Zhou, L., Liu, H., Ma, Y., & Ding, Y. (2010). The

impacts of climate change on water resources and agriculture in China. Nature, 467(7311), 43–51.

Pozza, L. E., & Field, D. J. (2020). The science of soil security and food security. Soil Security, 1, 100002.

Rana, J., Uddin, J., Peltier, R., &Oulhote, Y. (2019). Associations between indoor air pollution and acute

respiratory infections among under-five children in afghanistan: Do SES and sex matter? International

Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(16).

Reimagining the Role of Chemistry in Food Security - American Chemical Society. (2023).

Saalidong, B. M., Aram, S. A., Otu, S., & Lartey, P. O. (2022). Examining the dynamics of the relationship

between water pH and other water quality parameters in ground and surface water systems. PloS One,

(1), e0262117.

Safi, L., Mujeeb, M., Sahak, K., Mushwani, H., & Hashmi, S. K. (2024). Climate change impacts and

threats on basic livelihood resources, food security and social stability in Afghanistan. GeoJournal, 89(2),

Sanaei, A., Herrmann, H., Alshaabi, L., Beck, J., Ferlian, O., Fomba, K. W., Haferkorn, S., van Pinxteren,

M., Quaas, J., Quosh, J., Rabe, R., Wirth, C., Eisenhauer, N., &Weigelt, A. (2023). Changes in biodiversity

impact atmospheric chemistry and climate through plant volatiles and particles. Communications Earth &

Environment, 4(1), 445.

Sayed, N., & Sadat, S. H. (2022). Climate change compounds longstanding displacement in Afghanistan.

Migration Policy Institute.

Snyman, D. (2020). Vulnerability and adaptation - Technical assessment report.

Sundem, L. (2014). Quality of drinking water in Afghanistan. 46.

The Effect of Climate Change on Water Resources and Programs | Watershed Academy Web | US EPA.


The slow violence of pollution in Afghanistan - CEOBS. (2018).

U.S. Global Change Research Program. (2018). Climate science special report: Fourth national climate

assessment, volume I. U.S. Global Change Research Program, 1, 470.

Ullah, A., Bano, A., & Khan, N. (2021). Climate change and salinity effects on crops and chemical

communication between plants and plant growth-promoting microorganisms under stress. Frontiers in

Sustainable Food Systems, 5(June), 618092.

Water quality and quantity are key for well-being. (2023).

WBG, & ADB. (2021). Afghanistan Climate Risk Country Profile.

WFP, UNEP, & NEPA. (2016). Climate Change in Afghanistan. UNEP World Food Program NEPA.

Yapiyev, V., Wade, A. J., Shahgedanova, M., Saidaliyeva, Z., Madibekov, A., &Severskiy, I. (2021). The

hydrochemistry and water quality of glacierized catchments in Central Asia: A review of the current status

and anticipated change. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 38 (November), 100960.

Lee, Y. J., Kim, N. S., Kim, H., Yi, J. M., Oh, S. M., Bang, O. S., & Lee, J. (2013). Cytotoxic and antiinflammatory constituents from the seeds of Descurainia sophia. Archives of Pharmacal Research, 36(5),